Repairing an Automobile Air Conditioning System

Before you start servicing the air conditioning system, have it evacuated of the refrigerant. This will cost about fifty dollars, if lucky; a service shop might do it for free. Once evacuated, and not under any more pressure, you can start undoing the air conditioning system. The air conditioning system is pressurized at a hundred and thirty pounds per square inch. This is why you need to make sure the service crew evacuates the system, and depressurizes it too, and this is for your safety.

Recommended parts to be replaced are the suction line hoses, orifice filter, accumulator, and if the compressor seems bad, replace too. Parts are inexpensive compared to what a service shop would charge to do the job. When replacing the compressor, you need to install refrigerant oil to the compressor, follow the compressor instructions.

When trying to find a stubborn leak, there is dye that you place in the system to find tiny leaks in seals and o rings.

After you have your new parts installed, install a new serpentine belt, or air conditioning belt, this a good time for belt replacement. Now it is time to recharge your air conditioning system. Buy a recharging gauge and the correct refrigerant for your system. This gauge is around thirty dollars and refrigerant is around five dollars a can. The parts store will tell you how many cans of refrigerant you will need, it is an approximate number. The true gauge is once the gauge is hooked to the car and the refrigerant / Freon can is draining into the system. Then you will know by the gauge, how many cans will be needed. You can always take back what you do not use.

Now the gauge comes with a set of instructions that will walk you through installing the refrigerant back into your system, it is not hard. This will test to see if your system can maintain the right pressure for operation. Also you can see if you have a leak in the system with the gauge. With a certain amount of refrigerant / Freon your gauge should indicate an adequate reading, if not you have a leak still. If you need to depressurize the air conditioning again, you will need to have your service shop evacuate the system for you.

When your system meets your approval, all problem leaks are fixed, take your automobile back to the repair shop for a final air conditioning vacuum and charge. Every time you open the air conditioning system up, it needs to be vacuumed, to rid itself of moisture, that harms the internal air conditioning components. This extra step, will keep your air conditioner in your vehicle longer longer.

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Investing in Car Dealerships – How to Value Them

Most business valuations are driven substantially by the company’s historical financial statements, tempered by other factors such as: location, brand name, management and such. In truth and in fact, the dealership’s balance sheet represents less than half the information necessary to properly value an automobile dealership. The balance sheet is but a starting point from which a number of factors must be added and subtracted in order to determine the true value of the assets.

Valuing new car dealerships has to do with projecting future profits and opportunities based upon the “dynamics” of the particular dealership being valued and of the automobile business itself.

The Internal Revenue Service recognizes that valuations include more than financial statements: “The appraiser must exercise his judgment as to the degree of risk attaching to the business of the corporation which issued the stock, but that judgment must be related to all of the other factors affecting the value.” Revenue Ruling 59-60, Section 3.03.

DEFINITION OF MARKET VALUE

The definition of market value according to the American Institute of Real Estate Appraisers’ Dictionary of Real Estate Appraisal, is: “The most probable price in cash, terms equivalent to cash, or other precisely revealed terms, for which the appraised property will sell in a competitive market under all conditions requisite to fair sale, with the buyer and seller each acting prudently, knowledgeably, and for self interest, and assuming that neither is under duress.” American Institute of Real Estate Appraisers, The Dictionary of Real Estate Appraisal. (Chicago: American Institute of Real Estate Appraisers, 1984), 194 195.

In Revenue Ruling 59-60, the Internal Revenue Service defines “fair market value” as follows: “…the price at which the business would change hands between a willing buyer and a willing seller when the former is not under any compulsion to buy and the latter is not under any compulsion to sell, both parties having reasonable knowledge and relevant facts.”

The purpose of Revenue Ruling 59-60 is to outline and review in general the approach, methods and factors to be considered in valuing shares of the capital stock of closely held corporations.

The methods discussed in the Revenue Ruling apply to the valuation of corporate stocks on which market quotations are either unavailable or are of such scarcity that they do not reflect the fair market value.

The Ruling goes on to state that no set formula can be devised to determine fair market value of closely held stocks and that the value will depend upon such considerations as:

(a) The nature of the business and the history of the enterprise from its inception.

(b) The economic outlook in general and the condition and outlook of the specific industry in particular.

(c) The book value of the stock and the financial condition of the business.

(d) The earnings capacity of the company.

(e) The dividend-paying capacity. The ability to pay dividends is often more important than a company’s history of distributing cash to shareholders, especially when valuing controlling interests.

(f) Whether or not the enterprise has goodwill or other intangible value.

(g) Sales of the stock and the size of the block of stock to be valued.

(h) The market price of stocks of corporations engaged in the same or a similar line of business having their stocks actively traded in a free and open market, either on an exchange or over-the-counter. With respect to an individual dealership sale, the best comparable is the amount the public company paid or received for buying or selling a similar dealership, not what the public company’s stock value or earnings multiple, per se, that is reflected on the stock exchange.

In practice, in arriving at the fair market value of a new car dealership, several different formulas have been used:

1. Return on Investment (or earnings valuation) Formula: The value of a business to a particular purchaser based upon a return on investment analysis. This value varies from purchaser to purchaser, according to the purchaser’s investment criterion, and it may or may not reflect fair market value. The National Automobile Dealers Association (NADA) refers to this value as “Investment Value.” A Dealer Guide to Valuing an Automobile Dealership, NADA June 1995, Revised July 2000.

The capitalization rate is determined by the stability of the dealership’s earnings and the risk involved in the automobile business at the time of sale, investment, or valuation. This method is highly subjective as the capitalization rate is based upon the particular appraiser’s perception of the risk of the business; consequently, the lower the appraiser perceives the risk, the lower will be the capitalization rate and the higher will be the price he would expect a potential purchaser to pay for the business.

In short, the capitalization rate is the appraiser’s opinion as to a rate of return on investment that would motivate a prospective purchaser to buy the dealership. Considerations include those specified in Revenue Ruling 59-60, as well as available rate of return on alternative investments.

2. Adjusted Net Worth Formula: Net worth of the company, adjusted to reflect the appraised value of the assets used in the day to day operations of a business, assuming that the user or purchaser will continue to make use of the assets. To this “net worth” value will be added blue sky or goodwill, if any. The “Adjusted Net Worth Formula” is the most common method used in purchasing and selling a new car dealership.

3. Orderly Liquidation Formula. This method values the assets as if all of them had to be sold – not at a “fire sale,” but in an orderly manner and without time constraints. Normally, if the dealership is profitable, some value will still be placed upon goodwill.

4. Forced Liquidation. The lowest of all values, forced liquidation means that all of the assets must be sold at a forced sale such as an auction, creditors’ sale or by order of a bankruptcy court. A bankruptcy proceeding regarding a new car dealership almost never brings goodwill. This might be the most appropriate formula if the dealership has no lease (or only a short term remaining on its lease) and cannot, as a practical matter, relocate.

5. Income Formula. The income formula is basically taking the store’s earnings and multiplying it by an appropriated capitalization rate. The trick here is the definition of “earnings.” In determining “earnings” a perspective purchase could use any combination of the following:

(a) current earnings

(b) average earnings – add the last five years together and divide by 5

(c) weighted average earnings – usually an inverted weight with the current year multiplied by five, last year by four, the year before last by three, four years ago by two, five years ago by one, then adding them together and dividing by 15

(d) cash flow – net income plus agreed add-backs such as depreciation, LIFO, personal expenses, excess bonuses and such

(e) forecasted earnings – future projected earnings discounted to present day value.

6. Fair Value. NADA also refers to a third value in addition to “Market Value” “Investment Value,” which it calls “Fair Value.” NADA describes “Fair Value” as being “…primarily used when a minority shareholder objects to a proposed sale of the company in assessing liquidating damages.” and defines it as: “The value of the minority interest immediately before the transaction to which the dissenter objects, excluding any appreciation or depreciation in anticipation of the transaction and without reference to either a minority or non-marketability discount.”

The NADA guide states: It is not common for auto dealers to run across this particular valuation standard. This author has never used, nor has ever seen this value used with respect to valuing automobile dealerships.

As can be seen in this report, this author in discussing valuations excludes what NADA describes as “Fair Value”.

7. The Greater Fool Theory. The National Automobile Dealers Association publication (A Dealer Guide to Valuing an Automobile Dealership, NADA June 1995), bemuses, in part: “A Rule of Thumb is more properly referred to as a ‘greater fool theory.’ It is not ‘valuation theory, however.” (In its “Valuing an Automobile Dealership: Update 2004” NADA dropped the reference to “fool” and simply states that the theory is “. . . rarely based upon sound economic or valuation theory,” but advises sellers to “Go for it, and maybe someone will be stupid enough to pay [it].”

The considerations for valuing new car dealerships are more complex than those used for valuing most other businesses. Dynamics such as the unique requirements of automobile manufactures and distributors can limit the amount of monies that may be paid for a dealership, regardless of what perspective purchasers may offer to pay for the store.

Therefore, the value of a new car dealership varies based upon the needs and ability of the purchaser and, consequently, the same dealership could have two different values to two different purchaser and both values would be correct.

Thus, our valuation of the subject dealership should be considered in the context and limitations of the facts and history of new car dealership sales as delineated herein.

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Should We Start Using Alternative Energy Resources Before We Exhaust Non-Renewable Fuels

At the rate we are currently using our standard fuels scientists say that with in as little as 40 years we will no longer have any more non-renewable fuels to burn. Just like anything else on the planet there’s only a certain amount of this product obtainable and once it’s gone there’s no way to replace it. Our children are going to need to cope with this issue, but it’s possible that we are going to not actually see this in our lifetimes. In this article we are going to be taking a look at what is going to happen to the earth if we continue to use our non-renewable fuels the way we’re using them now.

A thing that you need to bear in mind once our oil is used up, is that we are going to not have the ability to run gas powered machinery which includes automobiles or even create heating oil for our homes. Homes can currently be heated using solar energy and automobiles can be run on electrical energy, but there are still many vehicles and homes that rely on oil. If the men and women on this planet would begin using these alternative resources now before we run out of our oil, it may lengthen the time we have before we run out of oil. There is obviously the chance that we are going to not run out of oil, and this can be assured if everybody would begin using alternative energy sources for their vehicles and to heat their houses.

Solar energy is among the things which can replace our reliance on non-renewable fuels, and it’s an energy source we are going to never need to worry about running out. One of the ways that we can actually utilize the sun to heat our homes is by storing the sun’s energy in battery packs and then working with those batteries to power electric heaters to keep our houses warm. Something else I ought to mention is that utilizing this kind of energy to heat your house is in fact free once you get past the initial setup costs. I ought to also point out that if you’re one of the folks who have an electric automobile, you can take full advantage of the same technology to charge up your automobile without shelling money out to the power company.

You need to keep in mind that the sun is not the only type of alternative energy that we can draw from, as we can also use the wind and water. Even though at this time it’s still simpler to harness the energy from the sun these other options are still available and in time will be just as simple to use.

The fact is, that if we continue burning our standard fuels at the rate we’re doing right now in 40 or 50 years they are going to be used up, and these aren’t renewable. By now I should not have to tell you how important it is to begin to use these alternative energy resources for your energy needs, and the sooner you begin using them the more prepared you are going to be.

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Bike Lanes Prevent Injury and Reduce the Need for an Auto Accident Injury Lawyer

In cities across the United States, drivers may be noticing a narrow separate lane has been added on the side of the street. These designated bike lanes, sometimes marked by a symbol of a bicycle to denote their purpose, are preventing automobile-bicycle accidents across the nation and saving people money they would have spent on hospital bills and an auto accident injury lawyer.

Many people excuses for not making the healthier, more eco-friendly decision to ride a bike instead of a vehicle include issues with safety and not having a smooth, continuous path on which to ride. Many Americans who own bikes simply consider them recreational toys that are meant to be brought to the park to ride around for exercise.

However, the bicycle is slowly reclaiming its place as a viable transportation device. Thanks to the addition of bike lanes in many major cities, more people have been getting to and from work, school and the grocery on two wheels.

Studies have shown that the number of bike accidents decreases as the number of bicyclists on the road increases. The lanes encourage main road bicycling, which has proven to decrease automobile traffic. The greater presence of bicyclists forces those who do choose to drive automobiles to take the lanes seriously and to yield to the more fragile vehicle.

In the Netherlands, for example, the rate of automobile-on-bicycle accidents is about 26 times lower than that of the United States. This is true despite the fact that about 25 percent of their population commutes by bike, while only 1 percent of our population does so. Why? The Netherlands, though a much smaller area, contains over 18,000 miles of segregated bicycle lanes.

The lanes encourage more cycling and less driving, a change that is overall beneficial. More cycling and less driving means less traffic, less pollution, more exercise, more safety and less money one would limit spend on gas, maintenance and an auto accident injury lawyer.

But some people have taken issue with the lanes. In New York, ironically one of the first US cities to establish enforceable bike lanes, protesters argue that the lanes take away from their rights as motor vehicle operators by forcing them to share the road. Other arguments against the lanes include the fact that they take away precious curbside parking spots, run through loading zones originally designated for delivery trucks and sometimes actually cause more traffic because of the narrowed lanes.

However frustrating the adjustment period might be, studies have shown that equipping cities with bike-friendly roadways severely reduces instances of automobile-on-bicycle accidents and injuries. The protection of people lives and physical safety outweighs the minor Inconveniences posed by the lanes.

In the end, most drivers probably would prefer to suck it up and yield to bikers than to have to deal with an auto accident injury lawyer after accidentally knocking a cyclist off of a bicycle-unfriendly roadway.

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Automatic Tunnel Robotic Car Wash Systems And Pre-Prepping Prior To Automobile Washing

Every carwash owner is looking for a system that is fully automatic and robotic for their tunnel carwash so that they do not have to do any pre-prep washing. If you ever go to a fully robotic carwash you might notice before the car goes in there is someone there with a little pressure washer, a brush and a soap mitt getting the car ready to go through the tunnel.

The first time you see this you think yourself why is that person there? Shouldn’t the automatic carwash be good enough to clean the car without any human labor? Well that is the dig really; the truth is no, most of them can’t. It is unfortunate that robotic carwash cleaning equipment costs so much and does not fully clean the car properly. If the carwash owners do not pre-prep the car then there will be customer complaints.

Of course if they do prep the car prior to wash it slows the speed, cuts down the volume of cars that can be washed in the day and changes the consistency of each car washed due to the human element. All this is true of course however, not all cars are created equally. Consider if you will that every car has different bodylines and the robotic carwash system may not be able to get to everything.

Those hard to get to spots can be cleaned in advance and pre-prepped prior to entering the tunnel carwash. There is somewhat of a debate that goes on in the industry, as to whether carwash owners should pre-prepped the cars.

But in the end if the car is not clean enough the customer is not happy and therefore they will not return and you will eventually go into business for not enough customers or get a bad reputation and the competition will end up smoking you in the market place. Please consider all this in 2006.

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Electric Car Motors – How Do Electric Car Motors Work?

The electric car is one of the technological wonders that the century has produced. It has challenged the way we look at automobiles and been able to apply ordinary technology to give owners a new way to drive and own a vehicle. For a long time, man has relied on the internal combustion engine for all his automobile needs. This engine which runs on gasoline principally has dominated the world of automobiles until recently.

In these few years, the trend has begun to change. Now, people are looking for electric cars. The reason is simple – they want a cheaper way to drive. No more expensive gasoline. Some also want to have a cleaner car – one that produces less smoke.

The electric car has all the parts of a regular gasoline car except one thing – it has no internal combustion engine. This means no gasoline. Instead of a gasoline engine, it rather has a motor that powers it to move. This motor is powered by asset of batteries. The batteries are powered by been arranged in a row and then their powers combined to produce enough current for the car to move. As the car moves the power is sued up. The batteries can be recharged after the car has made some miles.

Unlike conventional vehicles, the battery will not have to be recharged so frequently. It may take the car up to about 1200 miles before it needs a recharge. For city driving, this may be about a week or two.

Today, electric cars can make about 90 miles an hour; making them comparable to any mid sized sedan that you can find. With time, this speed will increase and the batteries will have a longer life.

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Ford's Story of Success and Pride

The headquarter of Ford is in Dearborn, Michigan, a suburb of Detroit. This is the place where the ex-chief engineer of the Edison Illuminating Company, named Henry Ford founded the, "Ford Motor Company", on June 16, 1903 with a capital amount of $ 28,000 along with twelve other investors. The famous scientist Thomas Alva Edison was a great friend of Henry Ford and he encouraged him to go ahead with his idea and dream of establishing an automobile company which will manufacture simple and affordable car for the Americans.

At the beginning only two to three workers worked on each car. On July 23, 1903 the company sold its first produced car, Ford Model A and Dr. Ernst Pfennig a dentist from Chicago, became the first owner. Other car manufacturers made cars for wealthy people but Ford developed a design and manufacturing method that reduced the price of the Model T, which made its debut in 1908 at a price of $ 825. In its first year a record sale of over 10,000 cars was reached. Four years later the price dropped to $ 575. By 1914 Ford claimed a share of 48% of the automobile market. The car was sold like hot cakes. With the rise in demand, Ford was able to reduce the assembly time of the Model T from 12.5 hours to less than 6 hours. Ford created history and became the change maker of the automobile market.

World War 1 came to be a turning point as it changed the course of automotive history. Henry Ford was able to draw a large profit at that time. Ford Model T cars were used by the several armies for war purpose. It not only served as ambulances but also as delivery trucks, staff cars and artillery movers. As soon as America joined the war, Ford started producing ambulances, trucks, vans, tanks and submarine chasers. Ford's Trafford Park factory in Manchester supplied the British army with 30,000 Model Ts as ambulances and transporters of troops, water and munitions carriers.

When World War II started there was a boost in Ford's economy as they were serving both the sides. They produced roughly around 2,82,352 war Jeeps in the years 1941-1945. Ford's bomber plant at Willow Run, located in the Detroit suburbs manufactured automobiles for war and not for public transportation. Ford V3000 ambulances were used in World War II by the Germans. Ford of Germany built a total of 80,000 trucks for the German army during the war.

Ford did not limit itself in manufacturing only cars. They also manufactured trucks, vans and tractors. In 1925 they also manufactured airplanes. They also produced some important cars in the history of automobiles apart from the Ford Model T. Ford 150 Pickup remained a best seller for almost six decades. Ford Mustang is the first American "muscle car". Ford F-150 SVT Raptor, Lincoln Continental, Ford Thunderbird, Ford Transit, Ford Capri, Ford Escort is some of the most popular Ford cars.

Engines play a vital role in car's success. Ford produced 3, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 cylinder engines till date. Some of the important engines manufactured by Ford, are Ford Model T engine, Flathead V-8 engine, Cobra Jet engine, Boss engine, Ecoboost engine, etc. The 1.0 Ecoboost is a UK-designed 3-cylinder engine which has won awards from industry judges and experts. The Ecoboost engine is developed to be more fuel saving, more Eco friendly and less costly. Ford is not only famous for producing beautiful cars, but also for producing one of the best engines and creating history in the competitive automobile market.

The Ford family is a proud owner of the company for more that 100 years. It is one of the few notable brands in the world whose ownership stayed in the family of the founder for more than a century. They take pride in producing the first ever car for the common man by breaking the idea that a car is a rich man's property. Ford always created examples in the automobile industry. "$ 5 day", is an important day in the history of mankind because around 10,000 people gave line with a desire to get employed at Ford when there was a salary hike of $ 5 per day. It created an impact within the society as well as in the automobile industry as the production rate and quality of Ford cars got raised after the hike.

Today Ford factories are located in the USA, Britain, Germany, India, Brazil, Portugal, Argentina, Russia, Spain and many more. Henry Ford is considered to not only be a car manufacturer, but a change maker who changed the fate of the automobile industry.

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What Is Meant By Automobile Insurance Standard Coverage?

Automobile insurance standard coverage is the basic amount of insurance coverage that is required by law in order for an individual to legally operate a motorized vehicle. You can simply it even further with the blanket statement as being the mandatory amount of auto insurance coverage a driver must possess.

The most important part of anyone's car insurance policy is the liability coverage. This coverage protects the consumer against the cost of damages and injury that is a direct result of that same consumer if they are the cause of a vehicular accident. For instance if you're driving down the road and accidentally run into another person's car this insurance coverage will pay for the damages that result due to the accident.

The liability coverage is further broken down into two subsections. The first is bodily injury liability. This covers and personal injury inflicted by yourself upon others during a car accident. The second subsection is property damage liability. As you may have guessed this is your insurance protection against any damage you cause to another individuals property, usually their car.

Although coverage amounts can vary it is generally suggested that a good baseline of automobile insurance standard coverage should be 100/300/100. This can be read as $ 100,000 worth of bodily injury caused to another person, $ 300,000 towards bodily injuries for everyone involved and $ 100,000 for property damage. With rising medical costs and outrageous car prices this would be the absolute minimum insurance protection I would personally carry in my automobile insurance standard coverage. However, each state is different and you will need to check to see what their car insurance laws constitute as a minimum coverage amount.

If you are in a financial crunch and need a way to save money on your insurance policy try to avoid retaining only the minimum amount of coverage required by your state. Instead try raising your deductible amount (the amount you pay first in the event of an accident before your insurance company kicks in with its payment). You will find that by raising the amount $ 500 or $ 750 will significantly lower the monthly costs of your automobile insurance standard coverage.

Two other policies that exist include the medical payments insurance which provides for the immediate treatment of injuries sustained during an auto accident. Anyone riding in your vehicle to include yourself is covered, regardless of who is at fault for the accident. The second policy is commonly known as PIP or personal injury protection, is similar to medical payments coverage, but usually provides broader coverage. Many PIP policies provide compensation for lost wages, funeral expenses, and pain and suffering. Again you will need to check with your state insurance laws for further clarification if you are required to have this additional coverage.

Finally as a safety measure against law breaking individuals who illegally drive without insurance there is uninsured motorist insurance when the other driver has no liability coverage and underinsured motorist coverage which pays for the cost of your injuries that exceed the other driver's coverage maximum. As before with the PIP coverage you will need to make sure whether or not your particular state requires these forms of coverage as part of their automobile insurance standard coverage.

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4 Most Common Extraordinary Automobile Accidents Circumstances

In some situations, auto accident litigation may be a relatively simple type of case. But it can become much more complicated in cases involving substantial injuries with questionable insurance coverage limits on the other vehicle. The following article will discuss 4 main extraordinary circumstances that can often add complex issues to an already emotional and physically painful time following an accident. However, understanding these 4 situations can help make the aftermath of an auto accident and its subsequent injuries a much smoother experience.

Leased Cars

Not only is the operator of the at-fault vehicle responsible to anyone injured in an auto accident, but the owner of the vehicle is also responsible. The owner is responsible for the negligence of the operator, when that operation occurs with the permission of the owner. This is extremely important when the vehicle at fault is leased.

These days, there are a great number of cars and trucks on the road being driven on a lease basis. Because of this, it may be critical to go beyond the name on the registration to find out the exact owner of the vehicle. It is a fact that when a vehicle is leased from a big car company, the registration will simply bear the name of the user of the vehicle, the lessee. However, the actual owner of the vehicle, the lessor, is usually a major corporation with unlimited insurance coverage.

It is unfortunate for the severely injured victim when, as happens many times, the at-fault vehicle’s actual ownership is never discovered and the additional insurance is never disclosed.

Business Vehicles

Though it is common for companies to put their names in bold letters on their business vehicles, it is not always the case. When accidents occur, many times there is no indication that the vehicle was being used for business purposes. In fact, it may appear to the casual observer that the vehicle was not being used for business at the time. The only way to find out if the vehicle was being used for business is doing an in-depth investigation.

If a vehicle is being operated by an employee during the course of his or her employment, then the employer may be “vicariously responsible” for the negligence of their employee in operating that vehicle. It is very possible that the employer has additional liability coverage far exceeding that of the driver. An “excess” insurance policy may also exist.

Defects

One of the causes of an auto accident may be a highway defect, such as improper design, maintenance, construction, signage, or lighting. Liability may also be based on improper striping on the road’s passing lanes, a hill that impairs driver visibility, a sharp obstruction or problem with the roadway that obstructs drivers’ vision. Trees and utility poles can also cause problems when planted or erected too close to the roadway.

The Seatbelt Defense

While seatbelts and airbags provide an important function and do prevent serious injuries or death to people involved in accidents, they are not guarantees that you will not be killed or injured in a serious accident.

Seatbelts and airbags can fail or cause injury in and of themselves. But yet, the seatbelt defense, often used by attorneys defending at-fault drivers, seeks to establish that some, or all, of the plaintiff’s injuries were caused by the failure to wear a seatbelt.

All in all, it is essential that a routine investigation be done, in any case involving a vehicular accident. Police records must be obtained, witnesses interviewed and photographs taken immediately of the accident scene and damage to the vehicles. Prompt contact must be made with the insurance company of the negligent driver to learn of the available coverage limits and attempt to find out additional information from the adjuster regarding possible other areas for coverage. Many times, the at-fault driver’s insurance company adjuster will attempt to record a statement from the victim, without advice of counsel. This should never be permitted.

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Motivation in the 21st Century

Throughout history, one important aspect of all facets of education (including music) revolve around the ways that a teacher helps to motivate their students. A teacher can be most-effective when the student trusts in the teacher. This relationship between teacher and student creates the natural love of learning that is nurtured by the teacher and is grown by the student. An important way that a good teacher helps to continue nurturing this love of learning is by accessing various types of motivation to give the student goals that they can achieve. In the field of education, there are two important types of motivation: intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation.

By definition, extrinsic motivation is the type by which the teacher includes objects, rewards, and other "prizes" that are offered to the student for a "job well done". The effect is this: the student works for the reward and receives the reward all within a short period of time. As such, extrinsic motivations are organized, worked for and achieved all within a short period of time. As soon as one series of extrinsic motivation triggers are completed, another set must be created and distributed by the teacher. An example of such extrinsic motivation would be the use of stickers to offer to students as a reward for their progress or conduct in class. The reward is given when the various tasks associated with the sticker are completed; the next task that warrants an additional sticker is provided to reset the previous task. As such, the motivational circle continues.

On the other hand, intrinsic motivation, by definition, offers the student internal rewards for a job well done through the actions that the student presents to the teacher. Essentially, by working hard or completing a task and thus receiving a strong sense of accomplishment for completing such a task in a successful fashion, the student not only receives accolades from the teacher, they also feel good for completing the tasks. There are no outward rewards, as is the case with extrinsic motivation. Instead, the motivation comes to the student through the feeling of accomplishment that comes with the completion of each task they set out to complete. This sense of accomplishment is the internal reward that nourishes the natural internal desire to learn that is within each student.

A good teacher is able to juggle both of these types of motivation. In the setting of the private music lesson, the teacher has the opportunity to get to know the student well enough in order to decide what tactics to use to help encourage continuous motivation. With the advent of various technological tools, the task for helping to motivate students has become increasingly easier.

In a series of surveys that were published in 2013 and 2014, facts were provided which stated that over 1-in-4 children under the age of 8 know how to use a computer, tablet, or smart phone. In the same study, it was calculated that 1-in-3 children between the ages of 9-13 had mastered the use of such technologies that they could confidently teach an adult to troubleshoot problems. Children that used technology for educational purposes in the home had a greater sense of problem solving skills and a higher ability to complete tasks when a reward was provided (such as the collection of points, completion of a level of a game, or the completion of the game itself). This use of extrinsic motivation to offer reward for the completion of tasks allows the student to have fun while completing the task at hand.

For all of us that have studied music as children, currently have children studying music, or teach music, we know that the challenge that we all face is this: learning a musical skill takes a lot of effort and time to succeed. The proper amount of time to master skills associated within music take many years. Many masters of performance art such as professional musicians, singers, record artists and recording engineers will all agree to this fact. All individuals of the same pedigree will also agree that at one point along the way, at least one teacher inspired them to thrive in their musical studies. This teacher, usually known and remembered by name, created the spark for musical growth that creates a life-long love of learning. This is strong proof to argue that intrinsic motivation is the powerful resource to help nurture life-long success.

There are many interesting tools that a music teacher can use including various apps on a series of topics including music theory, music history, ear training and recording techniques. In addition, there are many programs such as YouTube, Garage Band, Ever Note, among others. Each of these tools offer a cornucopia of options for any music teacher and music student to create a fun environment to increase motivation. No longer do students have to sit at their instrument and only have books as their primary resource to learning. By using the many multitudes of tools available, teachers have the option to create a personalized studio that fits the needs of many of learning environments. This allows the student to enter a world of vast possibilities that were not available 15 years ago.

The trick for every teacher is to create be willing to embrace this new generation of technological advancement while nurturing intrinsic motivation in an extrinsically motivated environment. In conclusion, there are many tools available to all music teachers, parents, and students in this new generation of technology within the 21st century. It is important to observe that these tools as mentioned will help encourage everyone to have fun while enjoying their musical studies yet these tools are not only secrets to success. The teacher must know how to motivate students to "keep going" through the successes and challenges that naturally come to all music students. The mixture of extrinsic and intrinsic motivational triggers will help to create the next generation of musicians, music enthusiasts and music appreciators. This is the main goal that will help keep music alive and thriving for the next generation and beyond.

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